All children with type 1 diabetes mellitus require insulin therapy. Most require 2 or more injections of insulin daily, with doses adjusted on the basis of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Insulin replacement is accomplished by giving a basal insulin and a preprandial (premeal) insulin. The basal insulin is either long-acting (glargine or detemir) or intermediate-acting (NPH). The preprandial insulin is either rapid-acting (lispro, aspart, or glulisine) or short-acting (regular).
Commonly, diabetic patients’ random blood glucose measurement will be greater than 200 mg/dL. Additionally, diabetic patients’ urinalysis will be positive for greater than 30 mg/g of microalbumin on at least two of three consecutive sampling dates. Type 2 diabetics who have had diabetes mellitus for more than 2 years will usually have a fasting C-peptide level greater than 1.0 ng/dL. Patients with type 1 diabetes will have islet cell and anti-insulin autoantibodies present in their blood within 6 months of diagnosis. These antibodies, though, usually fade after 6 months.
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.[2] Type 2 diabetes – which accounts for 85–90% of all cases – can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and consuming a healthy diet.[2] Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%.[71] Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish.[72] Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes.[72] Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.[73]

In ‘type 2 diabetes’ (previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), which accounts for 90% of all diabetes, the beta cells do not stop making insulin completely, but the insulin produced does not work properly so it struggles to store the sugar found in the blood. As a consequence, the pancreas has to produce more insulin to compensate for this reduction in insulin function. This is called insulin resistance and is commonly linked to obesity. This type of diabetes is seen more commonly over the age of 40 years but can occur at any age.  

The brain depends on glucose as a fuel. As glucose levels drop below 65 mg/dL (3.2 mmol/L) counterregulatory hormones (eg, glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine) are released, and symptoms of hypoglycemia develop. These symptoms include sweatiness, shaking, confusion, behavioral changes, and, eventually, coma when blood glucose levels fall below 30-40 mg/dL.


It is recommended that all people with type 2 diabetes get regular eye examination.[13] There is weak evidence suggesting that treating gum disease by scaling and root planing may result in a small short-term improvement in blood sugar levels for people with diabetes.[79] There is no evidence to suggest that this improvement in blood sugar levels is maintained longer than 4 months.[79] There is also not enough evidence to determine if medications to treat gum disease are effective at lowering blood sugar levels.[79]
Can type 2 diabetes be prevented? It is possible to reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although the underlying risk of type 2 diabetes depends strongly on genetic factors. But there was less type 2 diabetes around some years ago when people had a more active life and didn’t eat a modern Western diet. So it is fair to say that risk of getting type 2 diabetes is based on a genetic predisposition that is aggravated by lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, as well as a variety of environmental factors. To lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes (as well as other diseases), it is highly recommended to exercise often, eat healthily, and maintain a healthy weight. 
^ Jump up to: a b c d GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". The Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC 5055577. PMID 27733282.

Diabetes mellitus is not a single disorder but a heterogeneous group of disorders. All forms are characterized by hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism which are associated with absolute or relative deficiencies of insulin action and/or insulin secretion. The World Health Organization (WHO) developed a now widely accepted classification of the disorder, largely based on clinical characteristics (see Table 1, WHO, 1985).
There are many complications of diabetes. Knowing and understanding the signs of these complications is important. If caught early, some of these complications can be treated and prevented from getting worse. The best way to prevent complications of diabetes is to keep your blood sugars in good control. High glucose levels produce changes in the blood vessels themselves, as well as in blood cells (primarily erythrocytes) that impair blood flow to various organs.

Diabetic neuropathy is probably the most common complication of diabetes. Studies suggest that up to 50% of people with diabetes are affected to some degree. Major risk factors of this condition are the level and duration of elevated blood glucose. Neuropathy can lead to sensory loss and damage to the limbs. It is also a major cause of impotence in diabetic men.
Diet, exercise, and education are the cornerstones of treatment of diabetes and often the first recommendations for people with mild diabetes. Weight loss is important for people who are overweight. People who continue to have elevated blood glucose levels despite lifestyle changes, or have very high blood glucose levels and people with type 1 diabetes (no matter their blood glucose levels) also require drugs.
Excessive thirst typically goes hand-in-hand with increased urination. As your body pulls water out of the tissues to dilute your blood and to rid your body of sugar through the urine, the urge to drink increases. Many people describe this thirst as an unquenchable one. To stay hydrated, you drink excessive amounts of liquids. And if those liquids contain simple sugars (soda, sweet iced tea, lemonade, or juice, for example) your sugars will skyrocket even higher.
Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but a person does not yet have diabetes. Prediabetes and high blood glucose levels are a risk factor for developing diabetes, heart disease, and other health problems. Other warning signs prediabetes may include increased urination, feeling you need to urinate more often, and/or increased thirst.

If you are a diabetic and are pregnant you can have a normal, healthy pregnancy, but you need to take extra steps to avoid gaining excess weight and high blood sugars. Lifestyle habits (eating primarily vegetables and lean protein and exercising every day) will prevent problems during pregnancy. If you are a diabetic and become pregnant, monitor your blood sugar levels often. Talk with your doctor about exploring additional health care professionals, for example, a nutritionist, health coach, or naturopathic doctor about a healthy eating plan. If your blood sugar gets out of control you may:

Polyuria is defined as an increase in the frequency of urination. When you have abnormally high levels of sugar in your blood, your kidneys draw in water from your tissues to dilute that sugar, so that your body can get rid of it through the urine. The cells are also pumping water into the bloodstream to help flush out sugar, and the kidneys are unable to reabsorb this fluid during filtering, which results in excess urination.

Insulin is the hormone responsible for reducing blood sugar. In order for insulin to work, our tissues have to be sensitive to its action; otherwise, tissues become resistant and insulin struggles to clear out sugar from the blood. As insulin resistance sets in, the first organ to stop responding to insulin is the liver, followed by the muscles and eventually fat. How does insulin resistance begin? The root of the problem is our diet.
Prediabetes is a condition in which blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but a person does not yet have diabetes. Prediabetes and high blood glucose levels are a risk factor for developing diabetes, heart disease, and other health problems. Other warning signs prediabetes may include increased urination, feeling you need to urinate more often, and/or increased thirst.
a chronic metabolic disorder in which the use of carbohydrate is impaired and that of lipid and protein is enhanced. It is caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin and is characterized, in more severe cases, by chronic hyperglycemia, glycosuria, water and electrolyte loss, ketoacidosis, and coma. Long-term complications include neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, generalized degenerative changes in large and small blood vessels, and increased susceptibility to infection.
Jump up ^ Boussageon, R; Supper, I; Bejan-Angoulvant, T; Kellou, N; Cucherat, M; Boissel, JP; Kassai, B; Moreau, A; Gueyffier, F; Cornu, C (2012). Groop, Leif, ed. "Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". PLOS Medicine. 9 (4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204. PMC 3323508. PMID 22509138.

There is currently no cure for diabetes. The condition, however, can be managed so that patients can live a relatively normal life. Treatment of diabetes focuses on two goals: keeping blood glucose within normal range and preventing the development of long-term complications. Careful monitoring of diet, exercise, and blood glucose levels are as important as the use of insulin or oral medications in preventing complications of diabetes. In 2003, the American Diabetes Association updated its Standards of Care for the management of diabetes. These standards help manage health care providers in the most recent recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Diabetes mellitus, or as it's more commonly known diabetes, is a disease characterized by an excess of blood glucose, or blood sugar, which builds up in the bloodstream when your body isn't able to adequately process the sugar in food. High blood sugar is an abnormal state for the body and creates specific symptoms and possible long-term health problems if blood sugar is not managed well.
Acute Coronary Syndrome Moderate Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome Management Low Risk Acute Coronary Syndrome Management Myocardial Infarction Stabilization Post Myocardial Infarction Medications Cardiac Rehabilitation Angina Pectoris Heart Failure Causes NYHA Heart Failure Classification Diastolic Heart Failure Systolic Dysfunction Atrial Fibrillation Acute Management Atrial Fibrillation Anticoagulation Coronary Artery Disease Prevention in Diabetes Hypertension in Diabetes Mellitus CHAD Score Hypertension in the Elderly Isolated Systolic Hypertension Hypertension Criteria Hypertension Evaluation History Hypertension Management Hypertension Risk Stratification Resistant Hypertension Hypertension Management for Specific Comorbid Diseases Hypertension Management for Specific Emergencies Bacterial Endocarditis HDL Cholesterol LDL Cholesterol Triglyceride VLDL Cholesterol Hypercholesterolemia Hypertriglyceridemia AntiHyperlipidemic Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Preeclampsia Prevention Congenital Heart Disease Hypertension in Children Medication Causes of Hypertension ACE Inhibitor Angiotensin 2 Receptor Blocking Agent Dihydropyridine Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Selective Aldosterone Receptor Antagonist Niacin HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitor Cardiac Risk Cardiac Risk Management Exercise Stress Test Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Preoperative Cardiovascular Evaluation Eagle's Cardiac Risk Assessment Revised Cardiac Risk Index ACC-AHA Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment ACP Preoperative Cardiac Risk Assessment Syncope Subclavian Steal Syndrome Periodontitis Oral Health Cellulitis Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection Group A Streptococcal Cellulitis Vibrio Cellulitis Gram-Negative Toe Web Infection Impetigo Skin Infections in Diabetes Mellitus Erythralgia Blister Skin Ulcer Cutaneous Candidiasis Onychomycosis Alopecia Areata Skin Abscess Skin Infection Intertrigo Nail Discoloration Terry's Nail Ingrown Toenail Hyperpigmentation Carotenemia Incision and Drainage Cryotherapy Skin Conditions in Diabetes Mellitus Acanthosis Nigricans Diabetic Dermopathy Granuloma Annulare Necrobiosis Lipoidica Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Metabolic Syndrome Diabetes Mellitus Complications Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Adults Diabetic Ketoacidosis Management in Children Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State Diabetic Education Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Management Diabetes Mellitus Control in Hospital Diabetes Resources Diabetic Retinopathy Unintentional Weight Loss Unintentional Weight Loss Causes Hypoglycemia Serum Glucose Glucose Challenge Test Glucose Tolerance Test 2 hour Hemoglobin A1C Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Endocrinology Links Diabetic Neuropathy Neonatal Hypoglycemia Obesity Risk Gestational Diabetes Gestational Diabetes Management Gestational Diabetes Perinatal Mortality Diabetes Mellitus Preconception Counseling Obesity in Children Systemic Corticosteroid Medication Causes of Hyperglycemia GlucoWatch Biographer Symlin Inhaled Insulin Somogyi Phenomena Glucophage Human Growth Hormone Orlistat Diabetic Foot Care Nutrition in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetic Nephropathy Klinefelter Syndrome Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism Pubertal Delay Exercise in Diabetes Mellitus Perioperative Diabetes Management Obesity Surgery Night Sweats Acute Otitis Externa Bacterial Otitis Externa Necrotizing Otitis Externa Hearing Loss Sensorineural Hearing Loss Vocal Cord Paralysis Thrush Manual Cerumen Removal Sinus XRay Acute Suppurative Sialoadenitis Rhinosinusitis Tinnitus Burning Mouth Syndrome Taste Dysfunction Loss of Smell Dry Mouth Salivary Gland Enlargement Tongue Pain Dysequilibrium Atrophic Glossitis Animal Bite Infected Animal Bite Human Bite Heat Illness Risk Factors Burn Management Trauma in Pregnancy Bacterial Conjunctivitis Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Open Angle Glaucoma Cataract Ischemic Optic Neuritis Vitreous Hemorrhage Laser In-Situ Keratomileusis Floaters Light Flashes Acute Vision Loss Health Concerns in the Elderly Infections in Older Adults Medication Use in the Elderly Failure to Thrive in the Elderly Fall Prevention in the Elderly Irritable Bowel Syndrome Constipation Causes Chronic Diarrhea Traveler's Diarrhea Esophageal Dysmotility Gastroesophageal Reflux Hemochromatosis Pancreatic Cancer Hepatitis C Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Serum Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Liver Function Test Abnormality Lactase Deficiency Acute Pancreatitis Chronic Pancreatitis Osmotic Laxative Hepatotoxic Medication Traveler's Diarrhea Prophylaxis Pruritus Ani Perirectal Abscess Gastroparesis Whipple Procedure Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Dyspepsia Causes Nausea Causes Contraception HAIR-AN Syndrome Polycystic Ovary Disease Menopause Endometrial Cancer Risk Factor Candida Vulvovaginitis Anovulatory Bleeding Oral Contraceptive Female Sexual Dysfunction Cancer Survivor Care Serum Protein Electrophoresis Perioperative Anticoagulation Cardiovascular Manifestations of HIV HIV Presentation Hepatitis in HIV HIV Related Neuropathy Stavudine Emerging Infection Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Fever of Unknown Origin Candidiasis Neutropenic Fever Hepatitis B Vaccine Influenza Vaccine Postherpetic Neuralgia Fluoroquinolone Third Generation Fluoroquinolone Sulfonamide Travel Preparation Travel Immunization Influenza Dengue Legionella Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis Pneumonia in the Elderly Pneumonia Churg-Strauss Syndrome Tuberculin Skin Test Cystic Fibrosis Isoniazid Lung Transplantation in Cystic Fibrosis Active Tuberculosis Treatment Medical Literature Autonomic Dysfunction Bell's Palsy Facial Nerve Paralysis Causes Dementia Agitation in Dementia Ischemic Stroke Stroke Pathophysiology CVA Management Multiple Sclerosis Down Syndrome Cranial Nerve 3 Coma Exam Hemiplegia Giant Cell Arteritis Spinal Headache CSF Protein Altered Level of Consciousness Causes Guillain Barre Syndrome Restless Leg Syndrome Triptan Prevention of Ischemic Stroke Nerve Conduction Velocity Paresthesia Causes Peripheral Neuropathy Asymmetric Peripheral Neuropathy Peripheral Neuropathy Tremor Neonatal Distress Causes Newborn History Newborn Exam Neonatal Jaundice Causes Respiratory Distress Syndrome in the Newborn Late Pregnancy Loss Preterm Labor First Trimester Bleeding Fetal Macrosomia Hyperemesis Gravidarum Medications in Pregnancy Ritodrine Terbutaline Pregnancy Risk Assessment Probe-to-Bone Test Shoulder History Dupuytren's Disease Septic Bursitis Spinal Infection Osteomyelitis Causes Vertebral Osteomyelitis Patellar Tendinopathy Meralgia Paresthetica Frozen Shoulder Exertional Compartment Syndrome Hip Pain Low Back Pain Red Flag Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Adolescent Health Bullying Ephedrine Ginseng Myoinositol Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Lab Markers of Malnutrition Nutrition Guidelines Glycemic Index Non-nutritive Sweetener Conenzyme Q10 Mortality Statistics Adult Health Maintenance Screening DOT Examination Family History Refugee Health Exam Automobile Safety Substance Abuse Evaluation Alcohol Detoxification in Ambulatory Setting Major Depression Major Depression Differential Diagnosis Anorexia Nervosa Antabuse Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antipsychotic Medication Clozapine Olanzapine Psychosis Insomnia Causes Renal Artery Stenosis Idiopathic Cyclic Edema Acute Kidney Injury Risk Chronic Renal Failure Acute Glomerulonephritis Nephrotic Syndrome Serum Osmolality Hypomagnesemia Drug Dosing in Chronic Kidney Disease Hyperkalemia due to Medications Hyperkalemia Causes Prevention of Kidney Disease Progression Intravenous Contrast Related Acute Renal Failure Osteoporosis Evaluation Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Polymyositis Differential Diagnosis Septic Joint Gouty Arthritis Fibromyalgia Charcot's Joint Charcot Foot Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Osteoarthritis Methotrexate Joint Injection Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Causes Impairment Evaluation Pre-participation History Exercise Exercise in the Elderly Walking Program Scuba Diving Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease Peripheral Vascular Disease Management Venous Insufficiency Wound Decubitus Ulcer Foot Wound Leg Ulcer Causes Wound Repair Fishhook Removal Ankle-Brachial Index Preoperative Examination Gallstone Acalculous Cholecystitis Cholecystectomy Small Bowel Obstruction Bowel Pseudoobstruction Abdominal Muscle Wall Pain Abdominal Wall Pain Causes Hydrocolloid Dressing Suture Material Surgical Antibiotic Prophylaxis Male Infertility Testicular Failure Bladder Cancer Urinary Tract Infection Recurrent Cystitis Acute Bacterial Prostatitis Acute Pyelonephritis Erectile Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction Causes Erectile Dysfunction Management Urinary Incontinence Overflow Incontinence Urine pH Urine Specific Gravity Enuresis Proteinuria in Children Balanitis Peyronie's Disease Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Vasectomy Counseling Proteinuria Causes Targeted Cancer Therapy Acute Paronychia Chronic Paronychia Urinary Retention Decreased Visual Acuity Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Diabetes Mellitus Shoulder Osteoarthritis Vitiligo Cardiomyopathy Heart Transplant Contraceptive Selection in Diabetes Mellitus Periodontal Bleeding Perioperative Antiplatelet Therapy Charlson Comorbidity Index Constipation Causes in the Elderly Chronic Osteomyelitis Abnormal Gait and Balance Causes in the Elderly Calcium Channel Blocker Overdose Diverticular Bleeding Framingham Cardiac Risk Scale Cardiac Risk in Diabetes Score Outpatient Bleeding Risk Index Four Year Prognostic Index Diabetes Screening ABCD2 Score Urine Microalbumin Hearing Loss in Older Adults Preoperative Guidelines for Medications Prior to Surgery Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Risk Score Hyperlipidemia in Diabetes Mellitus Diamond and Forrester Chest Pain Prediction Rule Coronary Risk Stratification of Chest Pain Diabetes Sick Day Management Urinary Tract Infection in Geriatric Patients Insulinlike Growth Factor 1 Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head Family Practice Notebook Updates 2014 Emergency Care in ESRD Medication Compliance Slit Lamp Sulfonamide Allergy Health Care of the Homeless CHADS2-VASc Score Tuberculosis Risk Factors for progression from Latent to Active Disease Family Practice Notebook Updates 2015 Wound Infection Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Toxic Shock Syndrome Tetanus ASA Physical Status Classification System Family Practice Notebook Updates 2016 Solid Organ Transplant Calcineurin Inhibitor Cardiac Pacemaker Infection DAPT Score Acute Maculopathy Medication Causes of Delirium in the Elderly Family Practice Notebook Updates 2017 Major Bleeding Risk With Anticoagulants Severe Asymptomatic Hypertension Chronic Wound Family Practice Notebook Updates Stable Coronary Artery Disease Nocturia Polyuria Hyperhidrosis Causes Pneumaturia Anemia in Older Adults Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Children
Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[21] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine."[110] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[110] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[110] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius Of Memphis.[110] The disease was rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[110]
Does having type 2 diabetes affect life expectancy? While continued improvements in therapies and care for type 2 diabetes may be helping patients live longer, the unfortunate reality is that type 2 diabetes has been shown to decrease life expectancy by up to ten years, according to Diabetes UK. There is still much to be done to ensure that all patients have access to appropriate healthcare and treatments to live a happier and healthier life with type 2 diabetes.
To treat diabetic retinopathy, a laser is used to destroy and prevent the recurrence of the development of these small aneurysms and brittle blood vessels. Approximately 50% of patients with diabetes will develop some degree of diabetic retinopathy after 10 years of diabetes, and 80% retinopathy after 15 years of the disease. Poor control of blood sugar and blood pressure further aggravates eye disease in diabetes.

In type 2 diabetes (formerly called non– insulin-dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes), the pancreas often continues to produce insulin, sometimes even at higher-than-normal levels, especially early in the disease. However, the body develops resistance to the effects of insulin, so there is not enough insulin to meet the body’s needs. As type 2 diabetes progresses, the insulin-producing ability of the pancreas decreases.


a complex disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism that is primarily a result of a deficiency or complete lack of insulin secretion by the beta cells of the pancreas or resistance to insulin. The disease is often familial but may be acquired, as in Cushing's syndrome, as a result of the administration of excessive glucocorticoid. The various forms of diabetes have been organized into categories developed by the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus of the American Diabetes Association. Type 1 diabetes mellitus in this classification scheme includes patients with diabetes caused by an autoimmune process, dependent on insulin to prevent ketosis. This group was previously called type I, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, juvenile-onset diabetes, brittle diabetes, or ketosis-prone diabetes. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are those previously designated as having type II, non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, maturity-onset diabetes, adult-onset diabetes, ketosis-resistant diabetes, or stable diabetes. Those with gestational diabetes mellitus are women in whom glucose intolerance develops during pregnancy. Other types of diabetes are associated with a pancreatic disease, hormonal changes, adverse effects of drugs, or genetic or other anomalies. A fourth subclass, the impaired glucose tolerance group, also called prediabetes, includes persons whose blood glucose levels are abnormal although not sufficiently above the normal range to be diagnosed as having diabetes. Approximately 95% of the 18 million diabetes patients in the United States are classified as type 2, and more than 70% of those patients are obese. About 1.3 million new cases of diabetes mellitus are diagnosed in the United States each year. Contributing factors to the development of diabetes are heredity; obesity; sedentary life-style; high-fat, low-fiber diets; hypertension; and aging. See also impaired glucose tolerance, potential abnormality of glucose tolerance, previous abnormality of glucose tolerance.

Get to Know Your Medications: If you have diabetes, it is important to know and understand what your medications do. This can help to keep blood sugars controlled and prevent low and high blood sugars. Certain medicines need to be taken with food, or they will cause your blood sugar will drop. There are so many diabetes medications out there. Being your own advocate can help you. Make sure to tell your doctor if your medications are too expensive or if they are causing any side effects. If your medication regimen is not working for you, odds are your doctor can find a new medicine that might work better.
Type 2 diabetes (formerly named non-insulin-dependent) which results from the body's inability to respond properly to the action of insulin produced by the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is much more common and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases worldwide. It occurs most frequently in adults, but is being noted increasingly in adolescents as well.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): With this test you will be required to fast for at least 8 hours and then are given a drink with 75 g of carbohydrate. Your blood glucose is checked at fasting and then 2 hours after drinking the solution. If your blood glucose is 11.1 mmol/L or higher, your doctor may diagnose diabetes. If your blood glucose 2 hours after drinking the solution is between 7.8 to 11.1 mmol/L, your doctor may diagnose prediabetes. This is the preferred method to test for gestational diabetes.
Monitoring your caloric intake may be helpful if you’re overweight, but everyone with type 2 diabetes should track how many carbs they’re taking in. That can be tricky because carbs are in many of the common foods you may already eat, but there are both good and bad sources of carbs. Fruits and vegetables, for example, are good sources, while pretzels and cookies are bad sources. (29)
If you’re getting a good night’s rest but still find yourself so tired you can barely function, it’s definitely worth mentioning to your doctor. Diabetes often wreaks havoc on a person’s normal blood sugar levels, causing fatigue in the process. In later stages, the tissue death associated with untreated diabetes can also limit circulation, meaning oxygenated blood isn’t being effectively transported to your vital organs, making your body work harder and tiring you out along the way.
Creatinine is a chemical waste molecule that is generated from muscle metabolism. Creatinine is produced from creatine, a molecule of major importance for energy production in muscles. Creatinine has been found to be a fairly reliable indicator of kidney function. As the kidneys become impaired the creatinine level in the blood will rise. Normal levels of creatinine in the blood vary from gender and age of the individual.
If sugars in general are not associated with increased diabetes risk, but sodas are, it suggests the possibility that something other than sugar explains this relationship.16 Sodas are often accompanied by cheeseburgers, chicken nuggets, and other unhealthful foods. That is, soda consumption can be a sign of a diet focusing on fast foods or an overall unhealthful diet and lifestyle. And sugary snack foods (e.g., cookies and snack pastries) are often high in fat; the sugar lures us in to the fat calories hiding inside. Some, but not all, observational trials have sought to control for these confounding variables. 
For example, the environmental trigger may be a virus or chemical toxin that upsets the normal function of the immune system. This may lead to the body’s immune system attacking itself. The normal beta cells in the pancreas may be attacked and destroyed. When approximately 90% of the beta cells are destroyed, symptoms of diabetes mellitus begin to appear. The exact cause and sequence is not fully understood but investigation and research into the disease continues.
Type 2 Diabetes: Accounting for 90 to 95 percent of those with diabetes, type 2 is the most common form. Usually, it's diagnosed in adults over age 40 and 80 percent of those with type 2 diabetes are overweight. Because of the increase in obesity, type 2 diabetes is being diagnosed at younger ages, including in children. Initially in type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced, but the insulin doesn't function properly, leading to a condition called insulin resistance. Eventually, most people with type 2 diabetes suffer from decreased insulin production.
Regular ophthalmological examinations are recommended for early detection of diabetic retinopathy. The patient is educated about diabetes, its possible complications and their management, and the importance of adherence to the prescribed therapy. The patient is taught the importance of maintaining normal blood pressure levels (120/80 mm Hg or lower). Control of even mild-to-moderate hypertension results in fewer diabetic complications, esp. nephropathy, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease. Limiting alcohol intake to approximately one drink daily and avoiding tobacco are also important for self-management. Emotional support and a realistic assessment of the patient's condition are offered; this assessment should stress that, with proper treatment, the patient can have a near-normal lifestyle and life expectancy. Long-term goals for a patient with diabetes should include achieving and maintaining optimal metabolic outcomes to prevent complications; modifying diet and lifestyle to prevent and treat obesity, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and nephropathy; improving physical activity; and allowing for the patient’s nutritional and psychosocial needs and preferences. Assistance is offered to help the patient develop positive coping strategies. It is estimated that 23 million Americans will be diabetic by the year 2030. The increasing prevalence of obesity coincides with the increasing incidence of diabetes; approx. 45% of those diagnosed receive optimal care according to established guidelines. According to the CDC, the NIH, and the ADA, about 40% of Americans between ages 40 and 74 have prediabetes, putting them at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes with a focus on decreasing obesity can prevent or delay the onset of diabetes in 58% of this population. The patient and family should be referred to local and national support and information groups and may require psychological counseling.
Does having type 2 diabetes affect life expectancy? While continued improvements in therapies and care for type 2 diabetes may be helping patients live longer, the unfortunate reality is that type 2 diabetes has been shown to decrease life expectancy by up to ten years, according to Diabetes UK. There is still much to be done to ensure that all patients have access to appropriate healthcare and treatments to live a happier and healthier life with type 2 diabetes.
Glucose in your body can cause yeast infections. This is because glucose speeds the growth of fungus. There are over-the-counter and prescription medications to treat yeast infections. You can potentially avoid yeast infections by maintaining better control of your blood sugar. Take insulin as prescribed, exercise regularly, reduce your carb intake, choose low-glycemic foods, and monitor your blood sugar.
×