Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Over time, the pancreas can’t make enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.
Onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented through proper nutrition and regular exercise.[60][61] Intensive lifestyle measures may reduce the risk by over half.[24][62] The benefit of exercise occurs regardless of the person's initial weight or subsequent weight loss.[63] High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of diabetes by about 28%.[64] Evidence for the benefit of dietary changes alone, however, is limited,[65] with some evidence for a diet high in green leafy vegetables[66] and some for limiting the intake of sugary drinks.[32] In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes.[24][67] Lifestyle interventions are more effective than metformin.[24] A 2017 review found that, long term, lifestyle changes decreased the risk by 28%, while medication does not reduce risk after withdrawal.[68] While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 does not improve that risk.[69]
Jump up ^ Farmer, AJ; Perera, R; Ward, A; Heneghan, C; Oke, J; Barnett, AH; Davidson, MB; Guerci, B; Coates, V; Schwedes, U; O'Malley, S (27 February 2012). "Meta-analysis of individual patient data in randomised trials of self monitoring of blood glucose in people with non-insulin treated type 2 diabetes". The BMJ. 344: e486. doi:10.1136/bmj.e486. PMID 22371867.
Oral medications are available to lower blood glucose in Type II diabetics. In 1990, 23.4 outpatient prescriptions for oral antidiabetic agents were dispensed. By 2001, the number had increased to 91.8 million prescriptions. Oral antidiabetic agents accounted for more than $5 billion dollars in worldwide retail sales per year in the early twenty-first century and were the fastest-growing segment of diabetes drugs. The drugs first prescribed for Type II diabetes are in a class of compounds called sulfonylureas and include tolbutamide, tolazamide, acetohexamide, and chlorpropamide. Newer drugs in the same class are now available and include glyburide, glimeperide, and glipizide. How these drugs work is not well understood, however, they seem to stimulate cells of the pancreas to produce more insulin. New medications that are available to treat diabetes include metformin, acarbose, and troglitizone. The choice of medication depends in part on the individual patient profile. All drugs have side effects that may make them inappropriate for particular patients. Some for example, may stimulate weight gain or cause stomach irritation, so they may not be the best treatment for someone who is already overweight or who has stomach ulcers. Others, like metformin, have been shown to have positive effects such as reduced cardiovascular mortality, but but increased risk in other situations. While these medications are an important aspect of treatment for Type II diabetes, they are not a substitute for a well planned diet and moderate exercise. Oral medications have not been shown effective for Type I diabetes, in which the patient produces little or no insulin.

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A person of Asian origin aged 35 yr or more with two or more of the above risk factors, should undergo a screening test for diabetes. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is commonly used as the screening test10. Fasting and 2 h post glucose tests can identify impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting glucose >110 - <125 mg/dl), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (2 h glucose >140-<200 mg/dl) and presence of diabetes (fasting > 126 and 2 h glucose >200 mg/dl). If a random blood glucose value is > 150 mg/dl, further confirmation by an OGTT is warranted. Recently, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has been recommended as the test for diagnosis of diabetes (>6.5%). Presence of pre-diabetes is indicated by HbA1c values between 5.7 - 6.4 per cent11.

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) refer to levels of blood glucose concentration above the normal range, but below those which are diagnostic for diabetes. Subjects with IGT and/or IFG are at substantially higher risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease than those with normal glucose tolerance. The benefits of clinical intervention in subjects with moderate glucose intolerance is a topic of much current interest.


Assemble a Medical Team: Whether you've had diabetes for a long time or you've just been diagnosed, there are certain doctors that are important to see. It is extremely important to have a good primary care physician. This type of doctor will help coordinate appointments for other physicians if they think that you need it. Some primary physicians treat diabetes themselves, whereas others will recommend that you visit an endocrinologist for diabetes treatment. An endocrinologist is a person who specializes in diseases of the endocrine system, diabetes being one of them.
Although the signs of diabetes can begin to show early, sometimes it takes a person a while to recognize the symptoms. This often makes it seem like signs and symptoms of diabetes appear suddenly. That’s why it’s important to pay attention to your body, rather than simply brushing them off. To that end, here are some type 1 and type 2 diabetes symptoms that you may want to watch out for:
How is it treated? There is no uniform therapy for type 2 diabetes treatment, which depends on the individual person and his or her stage of type 2 diabetes. To learn more about individualization of therapy, please read our patient guide. That said, the ADA and EASD have created treatment recommendation guidelines for type 2 diabetes progression. In all cases, healthy eating, exercise, and weight management are key to effective type 2 diabetes management. As type 2 diabetes progresses, patients may need to add one or more drugs to their treatment regimen.
For Candace Clark, bariatric surgery meant the difference between struggling with weight issues, including medical problems triggered by obesity, and enjoying renewed health and energy. "I felt like I was slowly dying," says Candace Clark, a 54-year-old Barron, Wisconsin, resident who had dealt with weight issues for years. "I was tired of feeling the way [...]
Research continues on diabetes prevention and improved detection of those at risk for developing diabetes. While the onset of Type I diabetes is unpredictable, the risk of developing Type II diabetes can be reduced by maintaining ideal weight and exercising regularly. The physical and emotional stress of surgery, illness, pregnancy, and alcoholism can increase the risks of diabetes, so maintaining a healthy lifestyle is critical to preventing the onset of Type II diabetes and preventing further complications of the disease.
A. Diabetes is the inability of the body to ‘produce insulin - type 1 diabetes’ or ‘proper use of insulin - type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and pre-diabetes’. Diabetes is often goes undiagnosed because many of the symptoms of diabetes seems harmless. The causes of diabetes continues to be a mystery, pancreas it the organ whose defect causes diabetes.
Excessive thirst typically goes hand-in-hand with increased urination. As your body pulls water out of the tissues to dilute your blood and to rid your body of sugar through the urine, the urge to drink increases. Many people describe this thirst as an unquenchable one. To stay hydrated, you drink excessive amounts of liquids. And if those liquids contain simple sugars (soda, sweet iced tea, lemonade, or juice, for example) your sugars will skyrocket even higher.

People with diabetes either don't make insulin or their body's cells no longer are able to use the insulin, leading to high blood sugars. By definition, diabetes is having a blood glucose level of greater than or equal to126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) after an 8-hour fast (not eating anything), or by having a non-fasting glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL along with symptoms of diabetes, or a glucose level of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL on a 2-hour glucose tolerance test, or an A1C greater than or equal to 6.5%. Unless the person is having obvious symptoms of diabetes or is in a diabetic crisis, the diagnosis must be confirmed with a repeat test.
The diabetic patient should learn to recognize symptoms of low blood sugar (such as confusion, sweats, and palpitations) and high blood sugar (such as, polyuria and polydipsia). When either condition results in hospitalization, vital signs, weight, fluid intake, urine output, and caloric intake are accurately documented. Serum glucose and urine ketone levels are evaluated. Chronic management of DM is also based on periodic measurement of glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c). Elevated levels of HbA1c suggest poor long-term glucose control. The effects of diabetes on other body systems (such as cerebrovascular, coronary artery, and peripheral vascular) should be regularly assessed. Patients should be evaluated regularly for retinal disease and visual impairment and peripheral and autonomic nervous system abnormalities, e.g., loss of sensation in the feet. The patient is observed for signs and symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, e.g., numbness or pain in the hands and feet, decreased vibratory sense, footdrop, and neurogenic bladder. The urine is checked for microalbumin or overt protein losses, an early indication of nephropathy. The combination of peripheral neuropathy and peripheral arterial disease results in changes in the skin and microvasculature that lead to ulcer formation on the feet and lower legs with poor healing. Approx. 45,000 lower-extremity diabetic amputations are performed in the U.S. each year. Many amputees have a second amputation within five years. Most of these amputations are preventable with regular foot care and examinations. Diabetic patients and their providers should look for changes in sensation to touch and vibration, the integrity of pulses, capillary refill, and the skin. All injuries, cuts, and blisters should be treated promptly. The patient should avoid constricting hose, slippers, shoes, and bed linens or walking barefoot. The patient with ulcerated or insensitive feet is referred to a podiatrist for continuing foot care and is warned that decreased sensation can mask injuries.
Diabetes mellitus is a serious metabolic disease, affecting people of all geographic, ethnic or racial origin and its prevalence is increasing globally1. Burden from this costly disease is high on the low and middle income countries (LMIC) where the impacts of modernization and urbanization have caused marked adverse changes in lifestyle parameters.
People with diabetes either don't make insulin or their body's cells no longer are able to use the insulin, leading to high blood sugars. By definition, diabetes is having a blood glucose level of greater than or equal to126 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) after an 8-hour fast (not eating anything), or by having a non-fasting glucose level greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL along with symptoms of diabetes, or a glucose level of greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL on a 2-hour glucose tolerance test, or an A1C greater than or equal to 6.5%. Unless the person is having obvious symptoms of diabetes or is in a diabetic crisis, the diagnosis must be confirmed with a repeat test.
Your body is like a car—it needs fuel to function. Its primary source of fuel is glucose (sugar), which is gained from foods that contain carbohydrates that get broken down. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, takes sugar from your blood to your cells to use for energy. However, when you have diabetes, either your pancreas isn't making enough insulin or the insulin that your body is making isn't being used the way it's supposed to be, typically because the cells become resistant to it.
Alternatively, if you hit it really hard for 20 minutes or so, you may never enter the fat burning phase of exercise. Consequently, your body becomes more efficient at storing sugar (in the form of glycogen) in your liver and muscles, where it is needed, as glycogen is the muscles’ primary fuel source. If your body is efficient at storing and using of glycogen, it means that it is not storing fat.
Type 2 diabetes, the most common type of diabetes, is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is your main source of energy and comes mainly from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose get into your cells to be used for energy. In type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t use insulin well. Too much glucose then stays in your blood, and not enough reaches your cells.
Kidney disease: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 33 percent of people with diabetes have chronic kidney disease. Diabetes can also damage blood vessels in the kidneys, impairing function. The kidneys play a vital role in balancing fluid levels and removing waste from the body. Kidney health is therefore vital for preserving overall health.
Using insulin to get blood glucose levels to a healthy level is a good thing, not a bad one. For most people, type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease. When first diagnosed, many people with type 2 diabetes can keep their blood glucose at a healthy level with a combination of meal planning, physical activity, and taking oral medications. But over time, the body gradually produces less and less of its own insulin, and eventually oral medications may not be enough to keep blood glucose levels in a healthy range. 

Certain genetic markers have been shown to increase the risk of developing Type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is strongly familial, but it is only recently that some genes have been consistently associated with increased risk for Type 2 diabetes in certain populations. Both types of diabetes are complex diseases caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as by environmental factors.


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