As of 2016, 422 million people have diabetes worldwide,[101] up from an estimated 382 million people in 2013[17] and from 108 million in 1980.[101] Accounting for the shifting age structure of the global population, the prevalence of diabetes is 8.5% among adults, nearly double the rate of 4.7% in 1980.[101] Type 2 makes up about 90% of the cases.[16][18] Some data indicate rates are roughly equal in women and men,[18] but male excess in diabetes has been found in many populations with higher type 2 incidence, possibly due to sex-related differences in insulin sensitivity, consequences of obesity and regional body fat deposition, and other contributing factors such as high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake.[102][103]
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While poor vision is hardly uncommon—more than 60 percent of the American population wears glasses or contacts, after all—sudden changes in your vision, especially blurriness, need to be addressed by your doctor. Blurry vision is often a symptom of diabetes, as high blood sugar levels can cause swelling in the lenses of your eye, distorting your sight in the process. Fortunately, for many people, the effect is temporary and goes away when their blood sugar is being managed.
Individuals with diabetes have two times the likelihood of getting a urinary tract infection compared to individuals without the disease. If you find yourself getting up every couple of hours in the middle of the night, and you seem to be expelling a lot more urine than you used to, talk to your doctor and find out whether or not you have diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.[51] This is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1 in which there is an absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of islet cells in the pancreas and gestational diabetes mellitus that is a new onset of high blood sugars associated with pregnancy.[13] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes can typically be distinguished based on the presenting circumstances.[48] If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to confirm type 2 diabetes,[52] with C-peptide levels normal or high in type 2 diabetes, but low in type 1 diabetes.[53]
To diagnose diabetes, doctors will  take a medical history (ask you about symptoms) and ask for blood and urine samples. Finding protein and sugar in the urine are signs of type 2 diabetes. Increased glucose and triglyceride (a type of lipid or fat) levels in the blood are also common findings. In most cases, blood glucose levels are checked after a person has been fasting for 8 hours.
If you recognize any of the symptoms, contact your doctor immediately. A simple in-office test for sugar in the urine is used for diagnosis. If that test is positive, then a drop of blood from the fingertip will confirm diabetes. Every day, thousands of adults and children around the world are diagnosed, but many go undetected. Early diagnosis cannot prevent Type 1, but it can head off potentially devastating, even fatal, health concerns.

All you need to know about insulin sensitivity factor Insulin sensitivity factor is a measurement that describes how blood sugar levels are affected by taking 1 unit of insulin. It can help a person with type 1 diabetes regulate their blood sugar levels. Learn more about what insulin sensitivity factor is, who should test and when, and what the results mean. Read now
Diabetes mellitus results mainly from a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of insulin that is normally produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. It is characterised by high blood sugar, altered sugar and glucose metabolism and this affects blood vessels and causes several organ damage. Causes of diabetes can be classified according to the types of diabetes.
Is type 2 diabetes serious? Type 2 diabetes is not a death sentence, but it is a very serious disease that demands attention and careful monitoring. There is no such thing as ‘mild’ diabetes. Elevated glucose levels can damage the nervous system, blood vessels, eyes, heart, and kidneys. These complications really impact quality of life (through blindness, amputations, dialysis etc). They also significantly increase the chance of a stroke or heart attack. Managing blood glucose levels immediately, along with other health risk factors (e.g., cholesterol, blood pressure, weight), is necessary for preventing these complications. Losing even a small amount of weight and keeping it off can also improve glucose control as well as have other clinical benefits (read more tips on managing diet and exercise below for more on weight loss). Keep in mind that better diabetes management also has benefits in the here and now – mood and energy levels are adversely affected when your glucose levels are high. 
A growing number of people in the U.S. and throughout the world are overweight and more prone to develop Type 2 diabetes, particularly if they have the genetics for it. "Type 2 diabetes can be caused by genetic inheritance, but by far the obesity epidemic has created massive increases in the occurrence of Type 2 diabetes. This is due to the major insulin resistance that is created by obesity," Gage says.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT): With this test you will be required to fast for at least 8 hours and then are given a drink with 75 g of carbohydrate. Your blood glucose is checked at fasting and then 2 hours after drinking the solution. If your blood glucose is 11.1 mmol/L or higher, your doctor may diagnose diabetes. If your blood glucose 2 hours after drinking the solution is between 7.8 to 11.1 mmol/L, your doctor may diagnose prediabetes. This is the preferred method to test for gestational diabetes.
If you recognize any of the symptoms, contact your doctor immediately. A simple in-office test for sugar in the urine is used for diagnosis. If that test is positive, then a drop of blood from the fingertip will confirm diabetes. Every day, thousands of adults and children around the world are diagnosed, but many go undetected. Early diagnosis cannot prevent Type 1, but it can head off potentially devastating, even fatal, health concerns.
DM is a strong independent predictor of short- and long-term recurrent ischemic events, including mortality, in acute coronary syndrome (ACS),6,7 including unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI),8 ST-elevation MI (STEMI) treated medically,9 and ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).10,11 Furthermore, the concomitant presence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities that negatively affect the outcomes of ACS is higher in DM patients.12
If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose will not be absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and it will not be stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.[60]
Diabetes is a chronic condition, and it can last an entire lifetime. The goal of treating diabetes is to keep blood glucose levels as close to a normal range as possible. This prevents the symptoms of diabetes and the long-term complications of the condition. If you've been diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor – working with the members of your diabetes care team – will help you find your target blood glucose levels.
At present, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend general screening of the population for type 1 diabetes, though screening of high risk individuals, such as those with a first degree relative (sibling or parent) with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged. Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in young, lean individuals, usually before 30 years of age; however, older patients do present with this form of diabetes on occasion. This subgroup is referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). LADA is a slow, progressive form of type 1 diabetes. Of all the people with diabetes, only approximately 10% have type 1 diabetes and the remaining 90% have type 2 diabetes.

Heart disease accounts for approximately 50% of all deaths among people with diabetes in industrialized countries. Risk factors for heart disease in people with diabetes include smoking, high blood pressure, high serum cholesterol and obesity. Diabetes negates the protection from heart disease which pre-menopausal women without diabetes experience. Recognition and management of these conditions may delay or prevent heart disease in people with diabetes.
People with full-blown type 2 diabetes are not able to use the hormone insulin properly, and have what’s called insulin resistance. Insulin is necessary for glucose, or sugar, to get from your blood into your cells to be used for energy. When there is not enough insulin — or when the hormone doesn’t function as it should — glucose accumulates in the blood instead of being used by the cells. This sugar accumulation may lead to the aforementioned complications.
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