Findings from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have clearly shown that aggressive and intensive control of elevated levels of blood sugar in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes decreases the complications of nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and may reduce the occurrence and severity of large blood vessel diseases. Aggressive control with intensive therapy means achieving fasting glucose levels between 70-120 mg/dl; glucose levels of less than 160 mg/dl after meals; and a near normal hemoglobin A1c levels (see below).
About 40% of diabetes sufferers require oral agents for satisfactory blood glucose control, and some 40% need insulin injections. This hormone was isolated by Frederic Banting and Charles Best in 1921 in Canada. It revolutionized the treatment of diabetes and prevention of its complications, transforming Type 1 diabetes from a fatal disease to one in which long-term survival became achievable.
Some older people cannot control what they eat because someone else is cooking for them—at home or in a nursing home or other institution. When people with diabetes do not do their own cooking, the people who shop and prepare meals for them must also understand the diet that is needed. Older people and their caregivers usually benefit from meeting with a dietitian to develop a healthy, feasible eating plan.
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Type 2 diabetes is often treated with oral medication because many people with this type of diabetes make some insulin on their own. The pills people take to control type 2 diabetes do not contain insulin. Instead, medications such as metformin, sulfonylureas, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and many others are used to make the insulin that the body still produces more effective.
Your risk for Type 2 diabetes increases as you get older. It also increases if you smoke. Although smoking doesn't cause diabetes per se, the negative effects on your health are enough to make it more likely that Type 2 diabetes will occur if you have the other risk factors. "We try to be aggressive with smoking cessation, in particular in patients with diabetes," says Dr. Asha M. Thomas, an endocrinologist with Sinai Hospital of Baltimore.

The 1989 "St. Vincent Declaration"[117][118] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy but also economically – expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health – and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.
How is it treated? There is no uniform therapy for type 2 diabetes treatment, which depends on the individual person and his or her stage of type 2 diabetes. To learn more about individualization of therapy, please read our patient guide. That said, the ADA and EASD have created treatment recommendation guidelines for type 2 diabetes progression. In all cases, healthy eating, exercise, and weight management are key to effective type 2 diabetes management. As type 2 diabetes progresses, patients may need to add one or more drugs to their treatment regimen.
Part of a treatment plan for diabetes will involve learning about diabetes, how to manage it, and how to prevent complications. Your doctor, diabetes educator, or other health care professional will help you learn what you need to know so you are able to manage your diabetes as effectively as possible. Keep in mind that learning about diabetes and its treatment will take time. Involving family members or other people who are significant in your life can also help you manage your diabetes.
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production.[52] It is significantly less common than the three main types. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin.

Sources of processed or added sugar, including condiments, honey, and especially sugary drinks, are just a few of the potential culprits for weight gain, Grieger says, and it’s when they’re consumed in excess that they can contribute to diabetes risk. “The largest source of added sugar comes from sweetened beverages. They run the gamut of soda, sweetened tea, juices with added sugar, sports drinks — it’s a plethora. Just about everything we drink has added sugar in it, except for water,” she explains.
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Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.[24] Most people do not initially need insulin.[13] When it is used, a long-acting formulation is typically added at night, with oral medications being continued.[23][24] Doses are then increased to effect (blood sugar levels being well controlled).[24] When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and detemir are equally safe and effective,[98] and do not appear much better than neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, but as they are significantly more expensive, they are not cost effective as of 2010.[99] In those who are pregnant insulin is generally the treatment of choice.[23]
Watch for thirst or a very dry mouth, frequent urination, vomiting, shortness of breath, fatigue and fruity-smelling breath. You can check your urine for excess ketones with an over-the-counter ketones test kit. If you have excess ketones in your urine, consult your doctor right away or seek emergency care. This condition is more common in people with type 1 diabetes but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes.
DM is a strong independent predictor of short- and long-term recurrent ischemic events, including mortality, in acute coronary syndrome (ACS),6,7 including unstable angina and non-ST-elevation MI (NSTEMI),8 ST-elevation MI (STEMI) treated medically,9 and ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).10,11 Furthermore, the concomitant presence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities that negatively affect the outcomes of ACS is higher in DM patients.12
From a dental perspective, pregnancy leads to hormonal changes that increase the mother’s risk of developing gingivitis and gingival lesions called pregnancy tumors (see Right). Not surprisingly, poor glycemic control further adds to this risk. Therefore, it is imperative that if you become pregnant, you should promptly see your dentist. He or she will work with you to ensure that your dental self-care regimen is maximized to prevent or control your dental disease. Additional Resources on Diabetes and Oral Health National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research www.nidcr.nih.gov American Diabetes Association www.diabetes.org American Dental Association www.dental.org American Academy of Periodontology www.perio.org The Diabetes Monitor www.diabetesmonitor.com David Mendosa www.mendosa.com Diatribe www.diatribe.us The information contained in this monograph is for educational purposes only. This information is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have or suspect you may have a health concern, consult your professional health care provider. Reliance on any information provided in this monograph is solely at your own risk.
Type 2 diabetes is a preventable disease that affects more than 9 percent of the U.S. population, or about 29 million people. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than a quarter — some 8 million people — remain undiagnosed. With complications including nerve damage, kidney damage, poor blood circulation, and even death, it’s important for us all to know the early signs of type 2 diabetes.
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